Pipe2012: KYPipe node elements include junctions, tanks, reservoirs, pumps, sprinklers, rack sprinklers, regulating valves, loss elements, loss elements defined by manufacturer data from a library, variable pressure supplies, active valves, check valves, hydrants, valves, metered connections, intermediate nodes, inline meters, and user-defined devices. Most devices are also supported by Pipe2012: Surge.
Junction - A connection of one (dead end junction) or more pipe links. A junction may be placed at a high or low point in a pipeline to compute results for this location.
Reservoir - A connection of one or more pipe links to a constant level reservoir. During a simulation, the reservoir level remains constant unless data is provided to change its value for a particular simulation or at a specified time.
Tank - A connection of one or more pipe links to a variable level storage node. For EPS (extended period simulations) level changes are calculated. This device can be a cylindrical tank or have any shape defined by the user.
Variable Pressure Supply - A connection of one or more pipe links to a supply where the supply pressure depends on the supply flow and is determined by using pressure-flow data (either 1) static pressure, residual pressure and flow, or 2) multiple pressure-flow data points). This device is ideal for modeling a connection to a distribution system such as a supply to a subdivision.
Sprinkler (Pressure Dependent Outflow) - A connection of one or more pipe links to a point where flow is discharged through an opening (orifice) into the atmosphere (or a region of known pressure) based on the pressure in the distribution system. The characteristics of a connecting pipe may be defined (length, diameter, elevation change). This device can also be used to model a leak or a pressure sensitive demand.
Pump(s) - A connection of one or more pipe links to a pump. The pumps characteristics may be defined by constant power, a rated condition, head-flow data, or a pump file which includes data for all zones of operation. Multiple pumps (parallel or series) may also be modeled using the pump element.
Loss Element - An element identical to a pump except instead of a head gain, a head loss occurs across this device.
Regulator - A connection of one or more pipes is required to each side of the device that maintains downstream pressure (pressure regulating valve), upstream pressure (pressure sustaining valve) or flow (flow control valve).
Library (BFP-Back Flow Preventer) - A special loss element for which a head flow data Library is provided based on manufacturer, model, and size.
Active Valve - A valve for which the open ratio (stem position) may be specified and varied. The Cv (valve coefficient) ratio as a function of stem position is incorporated into the program for a number of standard valves (ball, butterfly, globe, gate, etc.). Users can provide data for other valve types.
Blowoff/Nozzle - This element models a hydrant and section of piping which discharges through an orifice to the atmosphere. It can be used to model the effect of opening a dead end blowoff.
Turbine - This element removes energy (head) from the flow and the head-flow characteristics are described by a file of data. This element is nearly identical to a pump described by a pump file except there is a head loss instead of head gain.
Wicket Gate - This element simulates a gate valve which controls the flow through the turbine. The percent opening of the gate is required data and can be varied.
LPS Tank - This advanced element is used for modeling liquid (sewage) holding tanks with attached submersible pumps. This device includes a pump and level controls for the pump operation. This element is especially useful for modeling low pressure sewage (LPS) systems but can be used for all holding tank situations.
Hydropneumatic or Pressurized Tank - This advanced modeling device models a tank which uses air pressure to supply a piping system downstream from the tank. When the low level is reached the pump adds water to build up pressure and water supply. For this element an external pump is specified which operates to fill the tank when the pressure falls below a certain level and turn off when above a certain pressure level.
Vacuum Breaker - This device models the effect of a Vacuum Breaker which admits air to the pipeline when the pressure is sub atmospheric. Without this device hydraulic calculations will be incorrect if sub atmospheric pressures develop. Note: the directional arrow should be in the normal direction of flow.
*Check Valve - Allows flow only in the specified direction. If conditions exist for flow reversal, the valve closes and the line carries no flow. Note: the directional arrow should be in the direction of flow.
*Hydrants - This element models fire hydrants and provides the capability of plotting field hydrant flow data, calculating fire flows and maintaining records using the model.
*On/Off Valve - A cut-off or isolation valve which can be closed to prevent flow in the pipeline..
*Meters - A metered connection node can be defined at any junction or inserted into a pipe. Each Metered Connection in a model can have several associated meters, each with its own demand, demand type, name, and user data (e.g. address).
* These are intermediate Nodes which do not add to model overhead.